Postcards: 100 Years since the End of World War I

On Veterans Day, November 11, 2018 we show our respect and gratitude for the service of our country’s veterans. This year’s celebration is a little more special than past observances, as it marks the 100th anniversary of the ending to World War I.

On this occasion, we invite you to explore these postcards from the Philo Holcomb, Jr. World War I postcard collection. Holcomb was a native of Atlanta, Georgia who served in the U.S. Army from 1918 to 1919. After the war, he traveled extensively in Europe, collecting numerous postcards, travel guides, and maps.

[Postcard front] The home fires are burning

[Postcard rear] Dear Philo
Dear Philo, You are constantly in our thoughts. Mother has given all the news. Father

World War I consumed the better part of Europe between the years 1914-1918. Its battles were fought with a brutality that was never before seen. The Great War took a significant toll on the men who fought bravely.

These men were sons, brothers, fathers, uncles, and nephews. Many of them had a family waiting for them to come home. While the soldiers were abroad fighting, the most common method to communicate with family, friends, and acquaintances was through letters and postcards.

 

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Millions of postcards were created between the years of 1905 and 1915. This time period is known as the ‘golden age’ for postcards. In Germany alone, there were about three million printed. In some ways, communication by postcard is similar to today’s use of social media such as Twitter, Instagram, or Facebook. Postcards have a limited amount of space for writing and picture to tell a story. That story could be about the place the person was currently stationed, a place someone visited, or just to reassure loved ones that they were okay.


 

[Postcard] Nenette et Rintintin - Right - Don't Leave Me - Ne t'en vas pas sans moi!
“If Rintintin is a soldier under special orders (like me most of the time) the allegory of jerking him away is true to life. Don’t blame me for the short dresses ladies wear these days. “
One could analyze this piece–featuring the French character Rintintin as well as the writing on the back of the card–and see this as him being “jerked away” from focusing on his duties in the Army with his interest in the women of Europe. You can see this again in the postcard below with Philo’s friend Bill having accidentally chased away a girl. Another example how postcards have the power of image and words in a short small package.

[Postcard front] Bar-aus-Aube - Usine Gadenne - Montagne Ste-Germaine

[Postcard rear] The flour mills - still a little farther upstream. A girl in the mill smiled at Bill but when he showed interest she ran away. Girls is funny creatures I guess.
“The flour mills – still a little farther upstream. A girl in the mill smiled at Bill but when he showed interest she ran away. Girls is funny creatures I guess.”

Postcards printed during this era sometimes reflected the politics and popular sentiment of the day. During the World War I era, humor became darker, illustrated below in the text of these British postcards.

British wartime postcards
My Latest Portrait: Just Me, Gas Who It Is; Some Bonnet: I eat & drink out of it, it protects my brains, it’ll come home with me under it.

Some Germans who opposed the war expressed their defiance through art. In the postcard below, one could interpret that it is making a mockery of the people in power. You can tell by the man’s luxurious clothes, clean nails, and wine glass that this is a wealthy man. In the corner of the postcard on the right, there is a small printed statement–SCHENKER– which means “boozer” in German.

 

Mockery of those in power has often been used by the common people to make their displeasure known. It can be seen in a lot of German artwork for the period of World War I. Mockery is still frequently used to the same effect in the present day, through its proliferation in memes and social media.


But more often than not, postcards were a quick way for soldiers, sailors, and airmen to connect with those they held close to their hearts.

[Postcard front] Remembrance and Love, when you're a long way from home
A postcard from Grand Valley State University Professor of History Dr. Jason Crouthamel’s WWI postcard collection
It is important to understand the sacrifices our military veterans have made.  Today, we honor them the best way we know how—Thank you, for your service and your dedication to our country.

 

 

Love Letters

For Valentine’s Day this year, we’re taking a peek into some of the most romantic correspondence collections in Special Collections and University Archives. We managed to whittle the choices down to two correspondence collections that really exude love. We hope you enjoy these snippets as much as we do!

First is the Edward Manley and Jean Worthington Letters, which includes a total of 60 letters written by Jean “Jeannie” Worthington and 159 written by Edward “Ned” Manley. The letters were sent between February 15, 1945-June 27, 1946 while Ned was serving in the U.S. Army. Jeannie, however, was a teenager, still in school in Cleveland, Ohio, trying to decide what she wanted to do with her life. A U.S. Army Private, Ned was assigned to an anti-tank company in the 27th Infantry Regiment in Japan.

The love between these two is heartwarming. Though it’s harder to imagine in today’s world of instant connections, letters were one of the only ways separated couples could communicate during the war. The only way to actually “see” your significant other was via photograph or in your dreams. Ned’s and Jeannie’s letters try to show the other person how much they cared through added emphases, terms of endearment, and the occasional inside joke.  They both mention how they will be together “always”, sometimes underlining the world, call each other “sweetheart”, and frequently mention 28–the number of children they joke they will have once they are married.  They both mention seeing each other in “Dreamland” at the end of some of their letters, alluding to the place they can at least pretend they are with each other. One example is the end of a letter Ned wrote to Jeannie on February 23rd, 1945:

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Letter from Ned to Jeannie from February 23, 1945

The love these two share is evident, whether they’re talking about their daily routines or how much they miss each other. Many of these letters mention “Someday”, typically in quotation marks, likely referring to their hopes of being reunited after the war. Jeannie mentions “Someday” twice in the conclusion of a letter she sent to Ned on March 2nd, 1945:

Jeannie
Jeannie’s letter from March 2, 1945

The second collection we chose to highlight is the Doris Keirn and Burley Yehnert Letters, containing a total of 34 letters, 21 from Doris (nicknamed “Dorrie”) between November 13th, 1944 – February 4th, 1946 and 13 by Burley “Burl” between December 13th, 1946 and July 29th, 1947. Dorrie’s letters typically discuss school events, since she was attending the Altoona School of Commerce in Pennsylvania, early musical talent, and her heartache over her separation from her fiancée, Burl. During this time, Burl was a Private at various Army Air Force postings before receiving a promotion to Sergeant, stationed in Tampa, Florida in late 1945. While his letters were written after he was discharged from the Army, he struggled to find postwar work, preventing him from moving to Phoenix, Arizona to be with Dorrie.

Through these letters, it is easy to feel the deep love these two had for each other, which make their separation all the most heart-wrenching. For example, on November 25, 1944, Dorrie is listening to a song from one of her records and has to write out all of the lyrics to Burl because she thought it “suits us perfect”. The song is titled ‘Just Plain Lonesome’ by Burke-Van Heusen for the 1942 Kyser film “My Favorite Spy”. To write out every lyric shows just how much she was relating to this song, missing her fiancée and the moments they shared together. Listening to the music while you read the lyrics she wrote out evokes the loneliness she felt and her yearning to be with Burl.

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Song lyrics in letter from Dorrie on November 25, 1944

The letters Dorrie sends to Burl are filled with romantic reminders. Some of the envelopes from Dorrie include special notes written on the flap, such as this example from January 21st, 1945 that reads “Close to you I will always stay/Close to you though you’re far away”:

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Envelope flap from Dorrie’s January 21, 1945 letter

Two letters even contain lipstick kisses:

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Five lipstick kisses sent to Burl
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Stack of lipstick kisses Dorrie sent to Burl

A few of her letters include her picture glued on, creating a more personal stationery (and one that Burl would enjoy):

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Letter from Dorrie on March 18, 1945 including her picture glued to the stationery

These letters are full of references to her love for Burl. She refers to him as her ‘husband’ even though they had not wed yet, and writes continually about how much she misses him and cannot wait until their time together truly begins.

Burl’s letters are also full of his love for Dorrie. Where Dorrie calls him ‘husband’ he refers to her as ‘wife’ – and even points out how often people believe they are already married! He also is sure to tell her how lucky he is to have a person like her love him in return.

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Closing of a letter from Burl

One letter even contains an “I Love You My Darling Dorrie” doodle:

Keirn-Yehnert5
“I love you my Darling Dorrie” doodle from Burl

Both Dorrie and Burl begin and end each letter by explaining how much they love the other person. These two truly fit the definition of true love.

We hope you enjoyed this peak into these two love related correspondence collections in our Special Collections. If you’d like to see more romantic letters in our Special Collections, be sure to check out the Olexa letters. Happy Valentine’s Day everyone!

To The Letter Episode 4: An Interlude with Alice

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Episode 4 is here! In this episode, we take a step away from Joe and Agnes’ story to meet one of Agnes’ friends, Alice Gelisle. This is the only letter we have from Alice, but we felt it was so packed with good information we didn’t want to miss it! In her letter, Alice discusses all the facets of her life–working in a factory, playing basketball, rationing, fashion, and going to dances. We hope you enjoy it as much as we did.

To the Letter is a podcast brought to you in collaboration with University Libraries and the eLearning and Emerging Technologies Digital Studio. Alice Gelisle was voiced by student Katie Newville. Special thanks to Marcia Lee for joining us!

Alice’s letter is available below:

 

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide from Alice Gelisle, sent Jan. 22, 1944

Did you enjoy hearing Alice’s perspective? Let us know! Send questions and comments to rupinskl@gvsu.edu or leave us a review on iTunes! We can’t wait to hear from you!

To the Letter Episode 3: Reading Other People’s Mail

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Episode 3 is all about reading other people’s mail. Many thanks to Lynn Heidelbaugh, a curator at the Smithsonian National Postal Museum, for speaking to us about the logistics of the postal system in WWII. Lynn is incredibly knowledgeable about all the complexities of how mail and packages traveled overseas, how censorship worked, and the development of Victory mail, or “V-mail”.

If you’re interested in learning more about war and the mail, we highly recommend checking out the National Postal Museum’s latest exhibit-that Lynn worked on!- My Fellow Soldiers: Letters from World War I.

To the Letter is a podcast brought to you in collaboration with University Libraries and the eLearning and Emerging Technologies Digital Studio. Joe Olexa is voiced by Kevin McCasland.

Letters featured in Episode 3 are available below:

 

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Letter from Joe Olexa to Agnes Van Der Weide, Jan. 24, 1944

 

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Letter from Joe Olexa to Agnes Van Der Weide, March 4, 1944

 

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Letter from Joe Olexa to Agnes Van Der Weide, March 7, 1944

 

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Letter from Joe Olexa to Agnes Van Der Weide, March 15, 1944

And as promised, here’s an example of both the full V-Mail sheet and the shrunk down version that would have been what Agnes actually received.

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Letter to Agnes, sent Sept. 14, 1943
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V-Mail Instructions and envelope on reverse of letter
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V-Mail sent to Agnes, Sept. 15, 1943 via V-Mail

The final V-Mail is in black and white and is only a fraction of the size of the original.

Questions about the mail? V-mail? Military dentists? Have thoughts about the broken engagement? Let us know! Send questions and comments to rupinskl@gvsu.edu or leave us a review on iTunes! We can’t wait to hear from you!

 

To The Letter Episode 2: Building a Relationship

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It’s here! After several technical difficulties, we’re so happy to release Episode 2 of the podcast: Building a Relationship. In this episode, we take a trip through 1942 to dive into the developing relationship between Joe Olexa and Agnes Van Der Weide.

To the Letter is a podcast brought to you in collaboration with University Libraries and the eLearning and Emerging Technologies Digital Studio. Joe Olexa is voiced by former theatre student Kevin McCasland. Special thanks to Archivist for Collection Management, Annie Benefiel, who makes a guest appearance to explain how we got these letters, what we’re doing to preserve them, and strategies to preserve your own family letters!

Letters featured in Episode 2 are available below:

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide, sent by Joe Olexa on May 8, 1942.

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide, sent by Joe Olexa on May 13, 1942.

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide, sent by Joe Olexa on May 16, 1942.

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide, sent by Joe Olexa on June 25, 1942.

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide, sent by Joe Olexa on July 11, 1942.

What do you think of the budding relationship between Joe and Agnes? Let us know! Send questions and comments to rupinskl@gvsu.edu. We can’t wait to hear from you!

To the Letter: Podcast Episode 1: An Introduction to the Letters

We’re so pleased to announce the launch of a new venture here at Special Collections and University Archives – a podcast! We’re trying something a little different, and we hope you will listen!

To the Letter is a podcast brought to you in collaboration with University Libraries, the eLearning and Emerging Technologies Department’s Digital Studio at GVSU, and a few talented GVSU students. On this podcast, we bring correspondence from GVSU’s Special Collections alive. In each episode you will hear (in their own words!) letters written by the people who lived through history and the stories behind them.

Join us as we dive into the story of a young soldier’s relationships and experiences during World War II…

Letters featured in Episode 1 are available below:

 

 

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide, sent by Joe Olexa on July 25, 1941.

 

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide, sent by Joe Olexa on August 23, 1941. 

 

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Letter to Agnes Van Der Weide, sent by Joe Olexa on September 1, 1941

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Bonus! Joe’s note to the Postmaster, Dec. 5, 1943

Have you ever been to Whalom Park? Heard “Amen” as a name? Let us know! Send questions, comments, and feedback to rupinskl@gvsu.edu. We can’t wait to hear from you!

The Murmur and the Roar

The Murmur and the Roar - title image

Personal and Public Perspectives of American Wartime

In times of war or military strife, the experiences of individual soldiers are often eclipsed by the civilian population’s understanding of the conflict. Influenced by media, politics, and propaganda, the public experience of a war is far removed from that of the individuals fighting it.

Soldiers and veterans find ways to understand, cope, and connect with others over their experiences. Sometimes they choose to share those experiences – in letters, diaries, memoirs, photographs, or recordings.

This exhibit features materials from Grand Valley State University Libraries’ Special Collections & University Archives that illustrate both the public perception and personal experiences of war. Special Collections & University Archives is actively collecting the stories of veterans – to remember, to honor, and to learn from their service and their sacrifice – through their unique collections of documents, photographs, media, and digital objects. The objects and memories presented in this exhibit are only a small portion of the resources available for research use.

 cw_personal

John Bennitt

john-bennitt
John Bennitt, M.D. (engraving); Western Biogl. Pub. Co.

John Bennitt was born on March 24, 1830 in Pulteney, New York. He received an M.D. from Cleveland Medical College in 1850 and entered medical practice in Centreville, Michigan in March of the same year. During the Civil War he served as an assistant surgeon in the 19th Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He and part of his regiment were captured in March of 1863, but were released and he continued his service until the end of the war. During the war he compiled three diaries and wrote over 200 letters to his family detailing his experiences in the army.

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In letters to his wife:

Camp Chase, May 24th 1863

“I cannot claim any particular merit in that I am trying to do my duty to my country, and to those who go forth risking their  lives for their country’s sake, yet I feel that those who remain at home, and have no near & dear friends in this terrible war, know nothing of the sacrifices that are made for our common country. People of the North in the midst of their unparalleled prosperity at home almost forget that there is a war, and it is only those who are made to feel it in the absence and loss of dear ones & the desolations of homes.”

McMinnville, Tenn. April 7th 1864

“I do so much wish I could be at home now, for I feel that a great responsibility rests on us which I would be glad to share with you. But my Country not only calls, but demands my services now, and I am unworthy of a heritage in this goodly land, if I shrink from doing my whole duty, but the time is not far distant I hope when that duty in the present  capacity will cease and I can return to peaceful avocations and Live with those I love. Let us live in hope trusting in Him who orders all things for good.”


cw_public

Patriotic Envelopes

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Mailing envelopes with patriotic imagery or emblems printed on them appeared at the outset of the Civil War soon after South Carolina’s secession from the Union in December of 1860. Production of the envelopes in the South ceased after 1863, but continued in the North until the end of the war. The envelopes were created to encourage patriotism and allowed printers to add new product lines to their inventory. Early in the war some Northern printers produced envelopes for the South as well. Vendors marketed them to soldiers to send letters home from the battlefields, but most envelopes used in mailing letters were sent to soldiers from their families in the North. The envelopes were most often purchased as keepsakes, kept in scrapbooks, and were never mailed.

Opposition to President Lincoln

cw1-4377a_nobodyhurt

Though President Abraham Lincoln is one of the most commemorated presidents in American History today, he was an extremely controversial figure during his time in office. Opposition and hostility toward Lincoln came not only from the people of the Confederacy and many in the southern border states, but also from his political opponents in the Democratic party in the North, and even elements within his own Republican Party. The ballad “Nobody Hurt” was composed by John Ross Dix, a Unionist and native of Bristol, England, in response to a speech Lincoln gave shortly after he was elected. During the speech, Lincoln implied that no one would be hurt during his first term as president and that people would have an opportunity to vote for another candidate in four years. The ballad shows how public criticism of President Lincoln was not limited to the Confederacy, and that even small statements had a large impact on public opinion.


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Archibald Irvine McColl (1893-1981)

Irvine McColl was a resident of Grand Rapids and attended the University of  Michigan, graduating with a Bachelor’s degree in 1917. McColl enlisted in the Army later that year and was a Sergeant in Battery C in the 119th Field Artillery from 1917 – 1919.

Though we have no photographs of McColl, we have many of the letters he wrote to his family. The photographs presented here are from the D.J. Angus photograph and film collection.

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From the letters of Irvine McColl:

January 31, 1919

“I wonder a lot what it will be like to be back again, and to be a chooser to some extent of what I can and cannot do and the men I will be with, and to actually be on speaking terms with English talking women, and to have a bath more than once a fortnight, and to eat real meals and not to have to mess as we do when we eat. I’m afraid I’ll seem a bit rough, at first at least, and a bit wild, for dispite [sic] our continual lament about nothing to do there is something going on, a fight or a fire or a wild party of some kind or other … And to come back to chocolate and sodas and canned excitement and adventures will seem tame,  perhaps, but I am certainly ready to try the civilized ways again. 

Mother and Aunt Hattie … both seem to think I am somehow different than I used to be,  but I am afraid I’ll disappoint them, for really, Al, I am only what I am, and can’t borrow much from the thing we have been over here for. It is only the fellows who were popped off that are the real heroes of the war. Their memory is as glorious as the immortal soul of the United States, but the rest of us are only poor weak mortals after all.”


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Posters to Sell the War

During World War I, the U.S. Government recruited advertisers, designers, and illustrators to communicate key messages about the war to the American public. Propaganda posters such as these were created to encourage citizens to join the military and help the U.S. defend its European allies. Posted along the street and in store windows, they were used to inspire patriotism and nationalism and to dehumanize the enemy. Their bright colors and intense graphics made them eye‐catching and easily noticeable.

 “I Want You…”

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“I Want You for the U.S. Army,”by James Montgomery Flagg, 1917

This World War I poster was designed in 1917 by James Montgomery Flagg, who contributed 46 posters to the government. Originally published on the cover of Leslie’s Weekly, the portrait of “Uncle Sam” went on to become one of the most famous posters in the world. Over four million copies were printed between 1917 and 1918. Due to its overwhelming popularity, the image was later adapted for use during World War II. This is perhaps one of the most recognizable images of this era, and has become an icon of American patriotism.

“Destroy This Mad Brute”

 

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“Destroy this mad brute” by Harry R. Hopps, 1918

During World War I, German soldiers were often depicted as apes in American propaganda. This poster posed American allies England and France as “civilization” and Germany as a ”mad brute.” In this poster, the ape is holding Lady Liberty, symbolizing the perceived  peril to the American values of liberty and democracy. In the background you can see Europe in ruins as the ape steps onto American shores. Due to propaganda like this, many German Americans whose families may have lived in America for centuries faced persecution during the war.


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Joseph P. Olexa (1918-2000)

Joe Olexa enlisted in the Army on December 9, 1940 and fought in the 26th Infantry Division, Company “L”. During his time in the Army, Olexa was stationed in Northern Africa, Sicily, France, Belgium, and Germany, fighting in some of the most remembered battles of World War II, including the Invasion of Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge. While stationed in America and overseas Olexa sparked a romance with Agnes Van Der Weide, a young woman in Grand Rapids. They kept in constant contact while he was overseas fighting and the couple married on July 23, 1945, and settled in the Grand Rapids area.

Though we have no photographs of Olexa, we have hundreds of his letters to Agnes as well as his personal memoir, written after the war. The photographs below come from the World War II collections of James W. Ochs, F.W. Beasecker, and Otto Kuxhaus.

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Dedication in the memoir “As I Remember,” by Joseph Olexa

“To all who served in the Armed Forces giving their lives, limbs and unselfish devotion to their country to achieve victory in a struggle to fight tyranny and oppression and be free from men who seek power and conquest the world over.”

Olexa recalls reaching Omaha Beach, Normandy

“Three Hundred yards from shore our L.C.I. hit two underwater mines making the launch sink enough so it would not clear the sand bar. We jumped into the water from the front side like rats escaping a fiery doom. The water here was deep as we sank into its murky depths from the weight of our equipment. What seemed like ages I finally hit bottom with my feet springing enough to send me back towards the top. My lungs were now crying for air as I used my arms in powerful strokes to surface. The extra 77 pounds of equipment I carried slowed me down.”

 


World War II - Public Perceptions

On the Home Front

While American soldiers braved the European and Pacific Theaters of World War II, the American way of life was drastically altered at home. Science and technology saw a flurry of innovation. Radar, plastics, electronics, and of course, nuclear weapons, saw huge advancements during this period. Once male-dominated areas of industry, science, and business saw an influx of women workers. Women found employment as engineers, welders, manufacturers, and electricians to help build the armaments to defend U.S. troops. The lack of men pursuing traditional leisure-time activities, such as baseball, created avenues for women to compete in public like never before.

Esterline-Angus Graphic Instrument

The Esterline-Angus Company, partly owned by D.J. Angus, was an early pioneer in engineering and manufacturing of electrical instruments. Angus invented a number of continuous-recording instruments and filled orders for the U.S. government and military during World War II. One such invention was the Recording Milliammeter, used by the research team of the Manhattan Project. In Chicago, Illinois on December 2, 1942 one of these devices was used to measure the first sustained, controlled nuclear reaction.

Women Take The Field

Grand Rapids Chicks 1953 program
Grand Rapids Chicks 1953 program

With the draft calling many of the country’s baseball players away to war, Philip K. Wrigley decided to create a women’s professional baseball league. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League began in the spring of 1943 and entertained thousands  throughout the Midwest before disbanding in 1954. As the first professional women’s baseball league on record, these women brought communities together and helped keep spirits high on the home front.

Heroes Under Cover: the Flying Tigers

The "Flying Tigers" American Volunteer Group pilots
The “Flying Tigers” American Volunteer Group pilots

The American Volunteer Group (AVG) was a small force of American aviators and mechanics led by Colonel Claire L. Chennault to aid United States’ ally China in its defense against deadly Japanese air raids and bombings.  Many of the group’s members traveled to China in an undercover mission, their passports identifying them as farmers or mechanics so they could travel without hassle. Several of the pilots  painted the noses of their P-40 fighter planes with shark mouths. Their Chinese allies, mistaking the shark teeth for a tiger’s intimidating scowl, began to refer to the pilots as Fei Hu, or “Flying Tigers.” After  the United States officially entered the Pacific Theater of the war due to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the AVG disbanded, many of its pilots returning to their service in the United States Army Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps. News reels about the Flying Tigers’ success in China were played in cinemas in the U.S. to bolster support for the war effort and boost morale on the home front.


Vietnam War - Personal Experiences

Michael Woods

Michael Woods was born in Natchez, Mississippi and raised in New Orleans, Louisiana. He enlisted in the Marines at the age of 17. After basic training he was sent to Camp Pendleton, and stationed in Okinawa in January of 1963. Sent to Vietnam with one of the first Marine units assigned there, Woods participated in a number of combat actions of varying size. After his tour in Vietnam was over, he stayed in the Marines until 1979, but did not return to Vietnam.

We have no photographs of Woods, but his interview can be found in the Veterans History Project digital collection. These images are from the digital collection of Ronald Oakes.

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From the interview of Michael Woods:

“The system in the military although stressful and demanding was the fairest system I had been exposed to at the time…You’re looking for, ‘Where can my ability take me? Just based on my personal ability, nothing else.’…The military itself is one of those places that operates under that principle.”

“The experience of leaving this training and going back to be with your buddies [back home, after training] is amazing. You find you don’t have anything in common with them anymore. You find that the things that they are doing seems childish and not grown up. So you lose that connection that you have had with these friends…and you start seeing yourself differently, maybe a cut above…”

“Every serviceman that came back experienced the hatred that many Americans showed them. For the black serviceman it was a little different…There is a civil rights movement here, and there are dogs being put on black people, and there are [fire] hoses being put on black people. Your fight is here on the streets of America, not in Vietnam. You are fighting for the Vietnamese to get rights when you don’t have those same rights here at home… Your own community had ostracized you…It wasn’t an easy time for black military people.”


Vietnam War - Public Perceptions

The Draft

During Vietnam about one-quarter of American troops were drafted into military service, most of whom were selected from poor or working class families. Men with physical limitations, college students, or men who were essential to financially supporting their families could apply for deferments. Many draft age men fled to Canada to avoid the military service. By 1972 over 200,000 draftees who protested their selection were involved in legal cases. Those who fled faced imprisonment or forced military service. In 1974, President Gerald Ford offered conditional amnesty to these men. On his first day in office in 1977, President Jimmy Carter offered a full pardon to all who requested it.

Protests at Home

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The conflict in Vietnam and the mandatory draft of young men into military service polarized American political discourse. Public protests, both in favor of and against the war, became a frequent occurrence. Many students here at Grand Valley had strong feelings about the Vietnam war. Protesters had sit-ins, chanted slogans, and held signs that voiced their divided opinions: “Stay in Vietnam to keep Freedom” and “Support LBJ kill a friend today.”

Vietnamese Propaganda

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These propaganda posters depict the Communist Party of Vietnam’s efforts to gain support for the war from their own population. Using bright, eye-catching colors and strong language, they sought to inspire nationalism and support for the communist regime. The language on these posters translates to phrases such as “Assault and defeat our enemies,” “Uncle Ho says victory, it means victory,” and “All armies fight to win.”


Capturing Veterans’ Voices

GVSU and the Special Collections & University Archives are dedicated to preserving the history of veterans. Currently the Special Collections hold very little documentation of the Korean War or the wars and conflicts following Vietnam. Aside from oral history recordings collected by the GVSU Veterans History Project, Special Collections collects photographs, letters, journals and diaries, small artifacts, and other documents and memorabilia from veterans. With the help of our community, we can preserve these unique resources for future generations to discover and explore. Please contact Special Collections & University Archives at collections@gvsu.edu for more information.

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This exhibit was curated by Special Collections & University Archives, Greg Bevier ’16, and Helen Kurtz ’16. Title and heading images were designed by Jeremy Shane ’17.